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"Officers must be knowledgeable about history and conversant in the art of negotiation..."
General Martin Dempsey, Former Chief of Staff, United States Army

Being an expert negotiator goes far beyond reading a popular self-help book from the local bookstore business section on your flight into a combat zone. Experts devote a lifetime of study or they may learn through experience with little formal training. Unless you are the one-in-a-million natural negotiator, the information in this website will help. First read the Practical Guide to Negotiation in the Military. Next, explore the website for more information. If you are working in a cross-cultural environment, look at our Education section for the lessons on cross-cultural negotiation. These will get you started.

Remember, many factors will influence any negotiation: culture, situation, language, mission, environment, urgency, personalities, and more. Each factor influences success and must be considered in the planning process. Careful planning, purposeful execution, and determined follow through give you the best chance of executing a successful negotiation. Following the processes of negotiation is not optional. An organized approach gives you the best chance of success. Use a negotiation planning process even if you have two minutes to prepare in the field or if you are leading a full staff in a well-prepared and chain-of-command approved, formal negotiation. Perhaps the best way to view negotiation is to make it a warrior tool. Warrior skills are part of readiness and you should train to best execute all your required combat skills; negotiation should be a part of this package.

Finally, the Negotiation Center of Excellence is committed to the warfighter and all aspects of employing the negotiation process. Click here for our mission brief and source documents.  Our mission is to support and prepare military officers, NCOs, and civilians for all forms and levels of negotiation and dispute resolution. We are proud of your service.

The Practical Guide to Negotiating in the Military, Second Edition was updated in 2013 to reflect the latest AFNC research. This work is a straightforward and practical approach providing information, techniques, and tools for successful negotiations. It is the best place to start your study of military and day-to-day negotiations.


The Negotiation Environment


Cooperative Negotiation Worksheets 

PDF IconCooperative Negotiation Worksheet with TIPO model
This worksheet, taken from the Practical Guide to Negotiating in the Military, is a simple tool for negotiation preparation. It includes diagrams of the TIPO model and the negotiation preference and style chart. 

PDF IconCooperative Negotiation Worksheet
This worksheet, taken from the Practical Guide to Negotiating in the Military, is a simple tool for negotiation preparation.

PDF IconCooperative Negotiation Conceptual Worksheet
This is a simplified, one-page version of the Cooperative Negotiation Strategy (CNS) worksheet.

PDF IconCooperative Negotiation Full-Text Worksheet
This article and worksheet provides more details on the use of the worksheet for negotiation preparation. Using the interest-based negotiation approach, the worksheet provides thought-provoking questions as part of the planning process. 

PDF IconCooperative Negotiation Article and Worksheet
This article provides a more detailed explanation of the CNS process. It complements the primer.

PDF IconModel Mediator Statement and Checklist
The AFNC compiled several mediator opening statements and checklists to ensure full and complete preparation for mediations. 

PDF IconAir Force Legislative Liaison Worksheet
The AFNC developed a cooperative negotiation worksheet for the Air Staff to use during day-to-day interservice and interagency negotiations and problem solving processes.


Interest Based Negotiation (IBN) Worksheets 

PDF IconIBN Worksheet Master
Interest-base negotiation is similar to the CNS strategy. These worksheets offer another option for planning using the interest-based strategy. 

PDF IconIBN Worksheet Intro, Guide, and Sample
The Negotiation Center developed a more detailed guide on the IBN worksheet. This guide was foundational for developing the CNS.

PDF IconSteps in Interest-Based Negotiation 
The Canadian Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service developed a short-paper providing a step-by-step process for executing an interest-based negotiation. This detailed list is geared toward business and union negotiations, but the outline does provide a viable structure for an IBN process. 

Internet Link IconInterest-Based Bargaining: Are you looking for an alternate to traditional collective bargaining
A short piece from the Federal Mediation & Conciliation Service advocating the use of interest-based negotiation. 




Suggested Short Readings 

These readings are just a sample of relevant practical and academic writing on the many negotiation topics.

Quick Reads:

Cole, Reyes - The Military Diplomat from the Armed Forces Journal, Feb 2009

Kelly, Tim - Remote Areas of Afghanistan: "Getting a Foot in the Door" from Armor Magazine, Mar-Apr 2009

Moore, Chris & Peter Woodrow - Mapping Cultures - Strategies for Effective Intercultural Negotiations from the Centre for Conflict Resolutions and the Media Peace Centre (South Africa), Mar 2004

Vincent A. Dalfonzo and Michele L. Deitrick, M.Ed. - An Evaluation Tool for Crisis Negotiators from the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 2015

Quinney, Nigel - U.S. Negotiating Behavior, Special Report 94, from the United States Institute of Peace, Oct 2002

Rife, Rickey - Defense is from Mars, State is from Venus from US Army War College, May 1998

Salacuse, Jeswald - Negotiating: the top ten ways that culture can affect your negotiation from the Ivey Business Journal, Sep/Oct 2004.

More Detailed and Academic Readings:


Horst, Paul R. - Cross-Cultural Negotiations. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, Air University, 2007. 35 p. (Research report).

Tressler, David M. - Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons from Iraq. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2007.


Disclaimer

The books included in this website are for academic reference only. They do not constitute an endorsement by the Federal Government, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Air Force.

Books 

This sample is just a few of the thousands of works available on negotiation. Contact the AFNC if you need information on a specific topic. (Listing these works is not a US Government endorsement or recommendation of any kind.)

Bazerman, Max H., and Margaret Ann. Neale. Negotiating Rationally. New York: Free, 1992. 

Camp, Jim. No: the Only Negotiating System You Need for Work and Home. New York: Crown Business, 2007. 

Cialdini, Robert B. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. New York: William Morrow, 1993.

Fisher, Roger, and Daniel Shapiro. Beyond Reason: Using Emotions as You Negotiate. New York: Viking, 2005.

Fisher, Roger, and William Ury. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books. 1981.  *Note: There are multiple negotiation books on many aspects of negotiation by Fisher and Ury.

Hall, Bradford J. Among Cultures: The Challenge of Communications, 2nd Ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth. 2005

Johnston, Peter D.  Negotiating with Giants: Get what you want against the odds. Victoria, BC: Negotiation Press. 2008

Lewicki, Roy J., David M. Saunders, and Bruce Barry. Essentials of Negotiation. New York:Â  McGraw-Hill Irwin. 2011

Shapiro, Ronald M. and Mark A. Jankowski. The Power of Nice: How to Negotiate so Everyone Wins: Especially You. USA: Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Starkey, Brigid, Mark A. Boyer, and Jonathan Wilkenfeld. Negotiating a Complex World: an Introduction to International Negotiation. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Welcome

The AFNC Partners with the Air Force General Counsel as the education arm for the Air Force Alternative Dispute Resolution Division. The Air Force Mediation Compendium is the guide for the Air Force Mediation Problem Solving process.